But after experiencing great success, Belgian breweries starting using the same time-tested recipes. "Innovation decreased with success, as to shoulder the weight of tradition," says Morvan. "They weren't challenging the status quo." Taking a more orthodox and technical approach towards their product became the norm for Belgian brewers.
Meanwhile in America, creative hobbyists and homebrewers -- like Jack McAuliffe of California's New Albion Brewing Company -- breathed new life into the American beer scene in the 1970s by opening some of the nation's first microbreweries. Before that, most of the country’s major breweries had been established by German-American immigrants during the 19th century, and their rigid, tradition-driven methods dominated. But then homebrewers and new microbreweries began reviving forgotten styles, including Belgian favorites like dubbel, tripel, saison, witbier, and more. Soon, local brewers began getting even deeper, experimenting with Brettanomyces yeast, merging styles, and incorporating enough hops to give a monk bitter-beer face.