Here's an estimate of how it works out chronologically
100+ years before the Slaughter of Cintra: Geralt's mother Visenna abandons him to the witcher school's training and mutations (episode 8, flashback). We know it happened more than100 years ago because of Hissrich's interview ahead of the show's release referring to Geralt killing Renfri.
70ish years before the Slaughter of Cintra: Yennefer, a young woman with facial disfigurement and a spinal curvature due to her part-elf parentage, is sold by her abusive father to a sorceress who drafts her into a magic school (episode 2). Yennefer transforms her body and begins advising the king of Aedirn (episode 3). We know it happens more or less 70 years ago thanks to Hissrich.
40ish years before the Slaughter of Cintra: Yennefer, as the king of Aedirn's mage, is tasked with escorting Queen Kalis of Lyria and her infant daughter home, when they encounter an assassin. Both die, and Yennefer decides to go solo (episode 4).
20ish-13 years before the Slaughter of Cintra: We follow Geralt's miscellaneous witcher exploits in which he kills Renfri and earns his title as the Butcher of Blaviken (episode 1), meets the bard Jaskier and some elves (episode 2), lifts a striga curse (episode 3), and attends a banquet hosted by Queen Calanthe of Cintra and claims "the Law of Surprise" (episode 4). We know all this happens in order because of the presence of Jaskier and his songs in each one, and because Ciri's mother is pregnant with her at the banquet, and Ciri is 12 when we meet her in person.
Sometime 13 years before the Slaughter of Cintra: Geralt and Yennefer meet and battle a djinn (episode 5) -- which we know happens after the banquet because Jaskier helpfully recalls Geralt invoking the Law of Surprise. Geralt and Yennefer's paths cross again to confront a golden dragon sometime after that (episode 6).
Immediately before the Slaughter of Cintra: Geralt rides to finally claim his Promise of Surprise, the child Princess Ciri, on the eve of Cintra's sacking by the rival kingdom Nilfgaard, but Queen Calanthe, loath to give up her granddaughter, offers Geralt a decoy before imprisoning him (episode 7). Yennefer and other mages rally to fight against Nilfgaard (episode 7).
The Slaughter of Cintra: The city is sacked. Queen Calanthe dies. Ciri flees and her mystic powers awaken (episode 1). Geralt manages to escape, but is badly wounded and later rescued by a peasant man (episode 8).
After the Slaughter of Cintra: Ciri's entire storyline throughout the season takes place, following her on the run in a two-week span where she uses her powers again to escape would-be captors, is sheltered by elves, and is fooled by a doppler posing as a trusted Cintra advisor (episodes 1-7). Yennefer and her mage comrades take the fight to Nilfgaard at the Battle of Sodden Hill, and after unleashing an onslaught of magic, Yennefer disappears (episode 8). Ciri eventually finds shelter with a peasant woman and finally meets Geralt after he wakes up and it's revealed that the man and woman who saved them were husband and wife (episode 8).