This might not mean much if it weren't for the fact that during the 1950s, Philip Morris (aka America's No. 1 tobacco company) was a major funder for the Grant Study. During those years, the participant questionnaires contained questions like, "If you never smoked, why didn't you?" So, you know: just a wee bit leading/condescending for non-smokers. Yet despite this sly subliminal marketing and funding power, the study's leads couldn't ignore the consequences and fatalities of smoking. Needless to say, Philip Morris hasn't been a study sponsor for a while now…
Don't abuse alcohol
Just passing along the findings, so don't shoot the messenger! For the participants of both studies, alcohol abuse extends well beyond just the health consequences (note: moderation ≠ abuse). And that's saying something considering alcohol abuse is the No. 1 contributor to disease and early death among participants.
In recent years, study researchers discovered that alcoholism was involved in 57% of all participant divorces. You might assume that bad relationships lead to drinking, but at least in this not-so-tiny study, very few bad marriages actually led to alcoholism. Instead, participants developed an alcohol problem, which then sabotaged their relationships. The Grant Study's lead investigator, Dr. George Vaillant, even concluded that, "alcohol is a cause, rather than a result, of life's problems." Just a few of these problems being depression and neurosis, which tended to follow alcohol abuse, rather than precede it.