This one is apparently so complicated that the Whole Grain Council had to create a web page called "Identifying Whole Grain Products." The key thing, though, is that if bread is "whole grain" or "made with whole grains" it could be white bread with a bit of quinoa sprinkled in. If you want to be sure that you’re actually getting some health benefits in there, a "100% whole grain" stamp is really the only safe bet.
"Organic" processed food
This is a strange one, since the Department of Agriculture has an established definition of organic food, and if something has the USDA Organic seal, it's actually been verified as organic. BUT: when it comes to processed foods, or products with several ingredients, "organic" doesn’t necessarily mean "100% organic." Up to 5% of a product's ingredients (not including salt and water) may be nonorganic, and a package can still have that pretty "Organic" label slapped on it.
"May reduce the risk of..."
When a food company wants to say that a food might prevent a specific disease, that’s called a "health claim." Luckily, the FDA has come up with very concrete sentences that food companies can put on packages. For example, here’s a trendy one that they label with an exciting "NEW" on their site: "Psyllium husk may reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes, although the FDA has concluded that there is very little scientific evidence for this claim."
This is clearly helpful, especially since you probably have no idea what psyllium husk is, and since it looks like it may not even protect us from diabetes. On the other hand, you have some pretty broad allowable statements -- consider the fact that gum with xylitol can claim that it may reduce cavities, but if you drink three sodas a day, that stick of gum probably won't help you. This is the ultimate noncommittal claim, since a food could just as credibly claim the reverse. Imagine a gum package loudly proclaiming, "May not reduce your risk of cavities!"
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Marina Komarovsky is a freelance writer for Thrillist, and has definitely taken an "organic" product home only to find it really says "original." For more on nutrition, follow her tweets @MariKomarovsky.