Requirements: College degree, usually master's, possible certification
Time investment: 6 years
Cost investment: $125,000+
Technically only a college degree is required, but this is one of those deals where the "optional" Finance or Business Administration masters degree is "mandatory" if you actually want to get anywhere.
MBA costs continue to climb, and the big names like Wharton manage to milk over $120,000 out of two years of classes (though, to be fair, plenty of well-regarded state schools offer residents a more reasonable ~$30,000 a year tuition).
Eventually, you might decide to get Chartered Financial Analyst (CFA) certified, which will require three exams, plus lovely registration fees. This may set you back financially for a spell, but will definitely make you stand out against office rival Greg. Hate that guy.