Be careful to select the right fare type
OK, yeah, these are kind of basic, but you need to have these basics down in order to start saving.
These are tickets that can be used, not shockingly, at any time, and are accordingly pricey as hell. They’re great if you’re working for the man and need to travel at specific, budget-unfriendly times.
These are generally for off-hour or weekend travel. If you can travel outside of the madhouse rush hours, these are great for last-minute trips out of dodge.
These are discounted (sometimes heavily discounted) tickets, but they can only be used on the specific train they're booked for. While they're good for saving money, they're tricky if you're trying to book tight or uncertain connections. If you miss your train, you're out of luck. Go for these only if you know yourself, and know you can be reasonably punctual.